Measurement Guide to Calculate and Determine Body Type

  1. HeightTaken against a height scale or stadiometer. Take height with the subject standing straight, against an upright wall or stadiometer, touching the wall with heels, buttocks and back.  Orient the head in the Frankfort plane (the upper border of the ear opening and the lower border of the eye socket on a horizontal line), and the heels together. Instruct the subject to stretch upward and to take and hold a full breath. Lower the headboard until it firmly touches the vertex.
  2. Body mass (weight). The subject, wearing minimal clothing, stands in the center of the scale platform. Record weight to the nearest tenth of a kilogram. A correction is made for clothing so that nude weight is used in subsequent calculations.
  3. Triceps skinfold. With the subject’s arm hanging loosely in the anatomical position, raise a fold at the back of the arm at a level halfway on a line connecting the acromion and the olecranon processes.
  4. Subscapular skinfold. Raise the subscapular skinfold on a line from the inferior angle of the scapula in a direction that is obliquely downwards and laterally at 45 degrees.
  5. Supraspinale skinfold. Raise the fold 5-7 cm (depending on the size of the subject) above the anterior superior iliac spine on a line to the anterior axillary border and on a diagonal line going downwards and medially at 45 degrees. (This skinfold was formerly called suprailiac, or anterior suprailiac. The name has been changed to distinguish it from other skinfolds called “suprailiac”, but taken at different locations.)
  6. Humerus breadth, right. The width between the medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus, with the shoulder and elbow flexed to 90 degrees. Apply the caliper at an angle approximately bisecting the angle of the elbow. Place firm pressure on the crossbars in order to compress the subcutaneous tissue.
  7. Femur breadth of the , right. Seat the subject with knee bent at a right angle. Measure the greatest distance between the lateral and medial epicondyles of the femur with firm pressure on the crossbars in order to compress the subcutaneous tissue.
  8. Bices Girth (Upper arm girth, elbow flexed and tensed, right. The subject flexes the shoulder to 90 degrees and the elbow to 45 degrees, clenches the hand, and maximally contracts the elbow flexors and extensors. Take the measurement at the greatest girth of the arm.
  9. Calf girth, right. The subject stands with feet slightly apart. Place the tape around the calf and measure the maximum circumference.


Note :

  1. Skinfolds. Raise a fold of skin and subcutaneous tissue firmly between thumb and forefinger of the left hand and away from the underlying muscle at the marked site. Apply the edge of the plates on the caliper branches 1 cm below the fingers of the left hand and allow them to exert their full pressure before reading at 2 sec the thickness of the fold. Take all skinfolds on the right side of the body. The subject stands relaxed, except for the calf skinfold, which is taken with the subject seated.
  2. Traditionally, the larger of the right and left breadths and girths have been used. When possible this should be done for individual assessment. However, in large surveys it is recommended that all measures (including skinfolds) be taken on the right side. The anthropometrist should mark the sites and repeat the complete sequence a second time. For further calculations, the duplicated measurements should be averaged. For more reliable values, relatively inexperienced measurers should take triplicate measurements and use the median value.

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